(1990). Physical Trait Theories. juvenile crime, gang formation, specific offender types) but they share one common assumption: some (otherwise moral) people are driven to crime out of the frustration( and (1991). Early theories of crime saw criminals as biologically different to non criminals. Monoamine oxidase and criminality: Identifying an apparent biological marker for antisocial behaviour. Biological Theories of Crime. Biological Theories Today. However, some traces still exist. Perhaps even more tragic, however, isthe indirect damage to society. Ellis, Lee. However, it wasn’t until the late 19th century that psychologists attempted to systematically explain the causes of criminal behaviour. Ellis, Lee. IV. Biological Theories of Crime Historical Theories (1800s – 1970s) Physical features Heredity Gender Body types Genetics Chromosomal abnormalities Intelligence The early view was that nature exerted influences on human beings that overcame socialization (nurture). Biological Theories and Criminal Behavior may affect a person’s early ability to discern right from wrong, however, once they are incorporated in … It was commonly believed that offenders behaved differently because they were physically different from non-offenders. Evidence suggests that mental health can have both direct and indirect links to criminality. This literature review categorizes these perspectives into five areas, provides a brief overview of each, and analyzes and synthesizes the relevant, elements within each area. their theory, one researcher suggested the name operant-utilitarian theory of criminality. Crime has high and diverse costs. Crime theories are also categorized based on their levels and scopes, and evaluated as five levels from large scale to individual factors; (i) societal macro level theories, (ii) community or locality level theories, (iii) group and socialization influence theories, (iv) crime events and routine activities, and (v) individual-level theories. 65-84). Biological Risk Factors for Involvement in Crime Mental health Mental health sits at the intersection of biological (such as genetics and neurology) and social factors (such as post-traumatic stress disorder, resulting from trauma or abuse). Boston: Northeastern University Press. ), Contemporary Criminological Theory (pp. Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency, 28, 227−251. Several psychological theories have been used to understand crime and delinquency. Crime and criminal behaviour are as old as human society itself. In P. Cordella and Larry Seigel (Eds. 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