Glial cell ecology in zebrafish development and regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms of regeneration may or may not be conserved between larval and adult zebrafish. While watching these fish repair their own spinal cord injuries, Duke University scientists have found a particular protein important for the process. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Jul 25;8(1):126. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00143-0. -, Alilain W. J., Horn K. P., Hu H., Dick T., & Silver J. Duke University scientists have found a protein that’s important for the ability of the freshwater zebrafish’s spinal cord to heal completely after being severed. directs glial bridging and spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Tsata V, Kroehne V, Wehner D, Rost F, Lange C, Hoppe C, Kurth T, Reinhardt S, Petzold A, Dahl A, Loeffler M, Reimer MM, Brand M. Development. (C) TEM image of a 3‐day post injured spinal cord showing an activated microglia near the central canal (having finger‐like cytoplasmic projections, red arrows) of injured spinal cord (blue arrow). SCN, nucleus of the Schwann cell; RAX, regenerating axon. HHS Hecker A, Anger P, Braaker PN, Schulze W, Schuster S. Commun Biol. Epub 2011 Mar 30. USA.gov. NIH Gollmann-Tepeköylü C, Nägele F, Graber M, Pölzl L, Lobenwein D, Hirsch J, An A, Irschick R, Röhrs B, Kremser C, Hackl H, Huber R, Venezia S, Hercher D, Fritsch H, Bonaros N, Stefanova N, Tancevski I, Meyer D, Grimm M, Holfeld J. JCI Insight. 2017 Dec 1;432(1):53-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.05.011. Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of neurons, oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths, all of which are not efficiently restored. Yu YM, Gibbs KM, Davila J, Campbell N, Sung S, Todorova TI, Otsuka S, Sabaawy HE, Hart RP, Schachner M. Eur J Neurosci. -, Abe N., & Cavalli V. (2008). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features!  |  Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Researchers have pinpointed key molecules that prompt damaged nerve fibres in zebrafish to regenerate themselves. All the images are of the same magnification. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals. Thus, our data illustrate a conserved role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult and larval zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. Scale bar 1 μm (A), 5 μm (B), 2 μm (C), (A) TEM image of 30‐day regenerated spinal cord showing remyelinating axons wrapped by a Schwann cell. Nerve fibres (arrows) can be seen crossing an injury site in the spinal cord … Analysis of Spinal Circuitry in Developing Zebrafish. HHS 2013 Aug;29(4):402-10. doi: 10.1007/s12264-013-1361-8. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Time course of axonal regeneration in adult zebrafish stained with acetylated‐tubulin (green) and…, (A) TEM image of a 3‐day post injured spinal cord showing a phagocytic…, (A) TEM image of an uninjured spinal cord showing a microglia (white arrowhead).…, (A) TEM image of 30‐day regenerated spinal cord showing remyelinating axons wrapped by…, NLM Epub 2019 Jun 10. Spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish is complex, involving inflammation, cell death, cell migration, cell proliferation, neurogenesis, axonogenesis, and tissue- and circuit-level remodeling (Hui et al., 2014). 2020 Jul 5;21(13):4768. doi: 10.3390/ijms21134768. In contrast, the zebrafish glia form a bridge that spans the injury site but allow the penetration of axons into it. Adapted from Hui et al., 2010. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.134552. Nature, 475, 196–201. Keywords: Vajn K, Plunkett JA, Tapanes-Castillo A, Oudega M. Neurosci Bull. Links: Spinal Cord Injury: Hope Through Research (National Institute of … 2011 May;33(9):1587-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07643.x. identified a growth factor in zebrafish that helps this process (see the Perspective by Williams and He). Wehner D, Tsarouchas TM, Michael A, Haase C, Weidinger G, Reimer MM, Becker T, Becker CG. A control group received sham surgery. Despite their small size, this fish has changed how scientists and researchers understand treatments for cancer, spinal cord injuries, and potentially the regeneration … We performed gene expression analysis using microarray to find damage-induced genes after spinal cord injury, and found that Sox11b mRNA is up-regulated at 11 days after injury. Neurosurgery. 2016 May;139(Pt 5):1394-416. doi: 10.1093/brain/aww039. 2020 Dec 16;147(24):dev193946. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. To test this, we assessed the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. P01 GM081619/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States, T32 GM007270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States, HHMI/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/United States. A freshwater zebrafish costs less than two bucks at the pet store, but it can do something priceless: Its spinal cord can heal completely after being severed, a paralyzing and often fatal injury for humans. In addition, zebrafish morpholino’s for legumain were used to knock-down the enzyme and test it’s essentiality for spinal cord regrowth. Therapeutic Potential of Wnt-3a in Neurological Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury. -, Afshari F. T., Kappagantula S., & Fawcett J. W. (2009). Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. This is a major barrier in mammalian spinal cord regeneration,” Prof Currie said. It was recently shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for spinal cord regeneration in the larval zebrafish. In contrast, the adult zebrafish transplanted with 300 cells exhibited better spinal cord regeneration because the surging distance of the 300-cell-transplanted fish was longer than that of the 100-cell-transplanted fish (data not shown). Mokalled et al. Experimental neurology 200: 430-37 However, a small, tropical freshwater fish native to South East Asia called zebrafish has the ability to rapidly regenerate their nervous tissue. (C) 15‐day post transected spinal cord showing some regenerated axons passing through the injury epicenter (yellow star). A zebrafish drug screening platform boosts the discovery of novel therapeutics for spinal cord injury in mammals. We are a neural regeneration laboratory in the Department of Developmental Biology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, USA. (D) A 30‐day post transected spinal cord showing significant numbers of regenerated axons passing through the injury epicenter (yellow star). doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03507. Scale bar 100 μm (A, B, C, and D), (A) TEM image of a 3‐day post injured spinal cord showing a phagocytic macrophage as cytoplasm is filled with myelin debris (white arrowheads). Briona LK, Poulain FE, Mosimann C, Dorsky RI. Scale bar 1 μm (A), 500 nm (A1), (A) TEM image of an uninjured spinal cord showing a microglia (white arrowhead). As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. After a spinal lesion, the ventricular zone shows a widespread increase in proliferation, including slowly proliferating olig2 … COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. No Nogo66‐ and NgR‐mediated inhibition of regenerating axons in the zebrafish optic nerve. Mruk and other researchers hope the insights they gain from studying the fish can be applied to find ways to regenerate human spinal cord tissue. The scarcity of oligodendrocytes in the lesion site impairs re-myelination of spared fibres, which leaves axons denuded, impedes signal transduction and contributes to permanent functional deficits. (A1) Higher magnification image of the boxed area in (A), in which the white arrowhead indicates the basal membrane of the Schwann cell, remyelinating an axon. Science (New York, N.Y.) 354: 630-34 Mutoh T, Miyata T, Kashiwagi S, Miyawaki A, Ogawa M. 2006. 2020 Aug 6;5(15):e134552. In the present review we discuss two interrelated events-axonal damage and repair-known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. The protein encoded by ctgfa ( connective tissue growth factor a ) is secreted after injury and encourages glial cells to form a bridge across the spinal lesion. Mokalled et al. Epub 2013 Jul 28. axonal regeneration; central nervous system; peripheral nervous system; spinal cord injury (SCI); zebrafish. 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